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Ancient Greek Temple Architectures

 

The Basis Of The Ancient Greek Temple Plans Is The Megaron Structure, Ancient Basic Temple

 
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Ancient Greek Temple Architecture

In Ancient Greek Architecture, there are some standards in Temple Architecture, such as the 3-column layout (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian). Briefly information about the temple architectures that you will encounter when you visit an ancient city:


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The basis of the ancient Greek temple plans is the Megaron structure.

This structure, which is thought to have appeared in the Early Bronze Age (3000 BC - 2000 BC), it was formed with a rectangular interior supported by columns and a small front yard.

Temples built as wood until 700 BC, later, they left their places to stone buildings who have specific standards.

in the first instance, columns had Doric order, but afterwards they lost the importance with the emergence of Ionian and Corinthian order.

The most important of the Classical Age (500 BC) temples is the Parthenon in the Athens Acropolis.

Some temples have 2 rooms. Cella is the holy room where the statue of God is placed, the room behind where the temple treasures were preserved called Opisthodomos.

The most architectural type you will encounter is the Peripteral planned temples.

The temples were named according to the number of columns on the front.

Distyle 2 Columns
Tetrastyle 4 Columns
Hexastyle 6 Columns
Octastyle 8 Columns
Decastyle 10 Columns

Basically Temple Plans :


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Monopteral (Monopteros)

Surrounded by columns, it supports a roof but is a circular temple model with no walls and Cella [1].




Tholos

It is a temple model with the same structure as monopteral, there is Cella, the inside is surrounded with wall.


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Temple In Antis ( Distyle In Antis / Templum In Antis )

Temple type with two columns between the anta [2] on the front plan.




Double Temple In Antis ( Amfidistylos In Antis )

Temple type with two columns between the anta on the front and back sides of the temple plan.


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Prostyle ( Tetrastyle / Prostylos )

In the plan of the temple, on the fa├žade, the temple type with four columns in front of the remaining anta.




Amphiprostyle (Tetrastyle / Amphiprostylos)

On the temple plan, on the front and back sides, the temple type with four columns in front of the remaining anta.


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Dipteral (Dipteros)

It is the type of plan that surrounds the temple with two rows of columns. The distance between the outer column and the side walls is equal to two times the distance between the two columns.




Peripteral ( Peripteros )

The most preferred architectural plan.

It is a type of plan where the periphery of the temple is surrounded by a single row of columns. The distance between the column and the side walls is equal to the distance between the two columns.


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Pseudo-dipteral (Pseudo-dipteros)

It is the type of plan that is created by removing the inner row from the double row of columns in the dipteral plan and leaving it empty. Usually seen in Anatolia during the Hellenistic period.




Pseudo-peripteral (Pseudo-peripteros)

It is the type of plan that is formed by concealing the columns surrounding Naos [3] as half columns on the walls of Naos. It was mostly applied in Roman temples.




[1] The most sacred spot in the temples where the God Statue is placed in the middle room (naos).

[2] Also called Antae or Antis. The name given to the outward protruding end points of the side walls.

[3] The room where Cella is located is called Naos.
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